Windows.txt

Da wikicab.

Qui di seguito il contenuto del file windows.txt, contenuto nella cartella docs di MAME. Contiene tutte le informazioni di configurazione da usare in mame.ini per l'uso dell'emulatore.

 Using the program
 -----------------
 
 The usual way to run MAME is by telling it to run a particular game:
 
 	mame <gamename> [options]
 
 For example:
 
 	mame robby -nosound
 
 ...will run Robby Roto without sound. There are many, many options 
 available. All currently supported options are listed below.
 
 An alternative way to run MAME is to give it a command:
 
 	mame <command> [parameters]
 
 For example:
 
 	mame -listsource gridlee
 	
 ...will print the name of the source file where the gridlee driver lives to
 the screen. There are just a handful of these commands in MAME. They are
 all listed below, just before the options list.
 
 
 
 Default Keys
 ------------
 
 All the keys below are fully configurable in the user interface. This list
 shows the standard keyboard configuration.
 
 Tab       Toggles the configuration menu
     
 ~         Toggles the On Screen Display. Use the up and down arrow keys to
           select which parameter to modify (global volume, mixing level, 
           gamma correction etc.) Use the left and right to arrow keys to 
           change modify the value. Some parameters adjust with finer or
           coarser control if you hold down the CTRL or SHIFT keys while
           pressing the left/right arrows. Use the ENTER key to reset a value
           to its default.
 
 P         Pauses the game
 
 SHIFT+P   While paused, advances to next frame
 
 F1        Toggle crosshairs for games that use them
 
 F2        Service Mode
 
 F3        Resets the game
 
 F4        Shows the game palette, decoded GFX, and any tilemaps. Use the
           ENTER key to switch between the three modes (palette, graphics,
           and tilemaps). Press F4 again to turn off the display. The key
           controls in each mode vary slightly:
 
              * Palette/colortable mode:
                 [ ] - switch between palette and colortable modes
                 up/down - scroll up/down one line at a time
                 pgup/pgdn - scroll up/down one page at a time
                 home/end - move to top/bottom of list
                 -/+ - increase/decrease the number of colors per row
                 ENTER - switch to graphics viewer
 
              * Graphics mode:
                 [ ] - switch between different graphics sets
                 up/down - scroll up/down one line at a time
                 pgup/pgdn - scroll up/down one page at a time
                 home/end - move to top/bottom of list
                 left/right - change color displayed
                 R - rotate tiles 90 degrees clockwise
                 -/+ - increase/decrease the number of tiles per row
                 ENTER - switch to tilemap viewer
 
              * Tilemap mode:
                 [ ] - switch between different tilemaps
                 up/down/left/right - scroll 8 pixels at a time
                 SHIFT+up/down/left/right - scroll 1 pixel at a time
                 CTRL+up/down/left/right - scroll 64 pixels at a time
                 R - rotate tilemap view 90 degrees clockwise
                 -/+ - increase/decrease the zoom factor
                 ENTER - switch to palette/colortable mode
 
           Note: Not all games have decoded graphics and/or tilemaps.
 
 F6        Toggle cheat mode (if started with "-cheat")
 
 F7        Load a save state. You will be requested to press a key to
           determine which save state you wish to load. Note that the save
           state feature is not supported for a large number of drivers. If
           support is not enabled for a given driver, you will receive a 
           warning when attempting to save or load.
 
 SHIFT+F7  Create a save state. Requires an additional keypress to identify
           the state, similar to the load option above.
 
 F8        Decrease frame skip on the fly
 
 F9        Increase frame skip on the fly
 
 F10       Toggle speed throttling
 
 F11       Toggles speed display
 
 SHIFT+F11 Toggles profiler display (debug builds only)
 
 F12       Saves a screen snapshot.
 
 INSERT    Fast forward. While held, runs the game with throttling disabled
           and with the maximum frameskip.
 
 ESC       Exits emulator
 
 
 
 
 Core commands
 -------------
 
 -help / -?
 
 	Displays current MAME version and copyright notice.
 
 -validate / -valid
 
 	Performs internal validation on every driver in the system. Run this
 	before submitting changes to ensure that you haven't violated any of
 	the core system rules.
 
 
 
 Configuration commands
 ----------------------
 
 -createconfig / -cc
 
 	Creates the default MAME.INI file. All the configuration options
 	(not commands) described below can be permanently changed by editing 
 	this configuration file.
 
 -showconfig / -sc
 
 	Displays the current configuration settings. If you route this to a
 	file, you can use it as an INI file. For example, the command:
 
 		mame -showconfig >mame.ini
 
 	is equivalent to -createconfig.
 
 -showusage / -su
 
 	Displays a summary of all the command line options. For options that
 	are not mentioned here, the short summary given by "mame -showusage" is
 	usually sufficient.
 
 
 
 Frontend commands
 -----------------
 
 Note: By default, all the '-list' commands below write info to the screen. 
 If you wish to write the info to a textfile instead, add this to the end of
 your command:
 
   > filename
 
 ...where 'filename' is the textfile's path and name (e.g., c:\mame\list.txt).
 
 -listxml / -lx [<gamename|wildcard>]
 
 	List comprehensive details for all of the supported games. The output
 	is quite long, so it is usually better to redirect this into a file. 
 	The output is in XML format. By default all games are listed; however, 
 	you can limit this list by specifying a driver name or wildcard after 
 	the -listxml command.
 
 -listfull / -ll [<gamename|wildcard>]
 
 	Displays a list of game driver names and descriptions. By default all
 	games are listed; however, you can limit this list by specifying a 
 	driver name or wildcard after the -listfull command.
 
 -listsource / -ls [<gamename|wildcard>]
 
 	Displays a list of drivers and the names of the source files their game
 	drivers live in. Useful for finding which driver a game runs on in 
 	order to fix bugs. By default all games are listed; however, you can 
 	limit this list by specifying a driver name or wildcard after the 
 	-listsource command.
 
 -listclones / -lc [<gamename|wildcard>]
 
 	Displays a list of clones. By default all clones are listed; however, 
 	you can limit this list by specifying a driver name or wildcard after 
 	the -listsource command.
 
 -listcrc
 
 	Displays a full list of CRCs of all ROM images referenced by all
 	drivers within MAME.
 
 -listroms <gamename>
 
 	Displays a list of ROM images referenced by the specified game.
 
 -listsamples <gamename>
 
 	Displays a list of samples referenced by the specified game.
 
 -verifyroms [<gamename|wildcard>]
 
 	Checks for invalid or missing ROM images. By default all drivers that
 	have valid ZIP files or directories in the rompath are verified; 
 	however, you can limit this list by specifying a driver name or 
 	wildcard after the -verifyroms command.
 
 -verifysamples
 
 	Checks for invalid or missing samples. By default all drivers that
 	have valid ZIP files or directories in the samplepath are verified; 
 	however, you can limit this list by specifying a driver name or 
 	wildcard after the -verifyroms command.
 
 -romident
 
 	Attempts to identify ROM files, if they are known to MAME, in the
 	specified .zip file or directory. This command can be used to try and 
 	identify ROM sets taken from unknown boards. On exit, the errorlevel 
 	is returned as one of the following:
 	
 		0: means all files were identified
 		1: means all files were identified except for 1 or more "non-ROM"
 			files
 		2: means some files were identified
 		3: means no files were identified
 
 -isknown
 
 	Very terse romident. The errorlevel is set the same as for -romident.
 
 
 
 Configuration options
 ---------------------
 
 -[no]readconfig / -[no]rc
 
 	Enables or disables the reading of the config files. When enabled
 	(which is the default), MAME reads the following config files in order:
 
 		- mame.ini
 		- <mymame>.ini (i.e. if MAME was renamed mame060.exe, MAME
 				parses mame060.ini here)
 		- mamed.ini  (if this is a debug build, i.e. mamed.exe)
 		- vector.ini (for vector games only)
 		- <driver>.ini (based on the source filename of the driver)
 		- <parent>.ini (for clones only, may be called recursively)
 		- <gamename>.ini
 
 	The settings in the later ini's override those in the earlier ini's.
 	So, for example, if you wanted to disable overlay effects in the
 	vector games, you can create a vector.ini with the "effect none" line
 	in it, and it will override whatever effect value you have in your
 	mame.ini. The default is ON (-readconfig).
 
 -[no]skip_gameinfo
 
 	Forces MAME to skip displaying the game info screen. The default is OFF
 	(-noskip_gameinfo).
 
 
 
 Path and directory options
 --------------------------
 
 IMPORTANT: Please use the path, directory and file options ONLY in mame.ini.
 Otherwise, the outcome may be unpredictable and not consistent across 
 releases.
 
 -rompath / -rp
 
 	Specifies a list of paths within which to find ROM or hard disk images.
 	Multiple paths can be specified by separating them with semicolons.
 	The default is 'roms' (that is, a directory "roms" in the same directory
 	as the MAME executable).
 
 -samplepath / -sp
 
 	Specifies a list of paths within which to find sample files. Multiple 
 	paths can be specified by separating them with semicolons. The default 
 	is 'samples' (that is, a directory "samples" in the same directory as
 	the MAME executable).
 
 -inipath
 
 	Specifies a list of paths within which to find .INI files. Multiple 
 	paths can be specified by separating them with semicolons. The default 
 	is '.;ini' (that is, search in the current directory first, and then
 	in the directory "ini" in the same directory as the MAME executable).
 
 -cfg_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where configuration files are stored.
 	Configuration files store user configurable settings that are read at
 	startup and written when MAME exits. The default is 'cfg' (that is,
 	a directory "cfg" in the same directory as the MAME executable). If this
 	directory does not exist, it will be automatically created.
 
 -nvram_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where NVRAM files are stored. NVRAM files
 	store the contents of EEPROM and non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) for games
 	which used this type of hardware. This data is read at startup and 
 	written when MAME exits. The default is 'nvram' (that is, a directory 
 	"nvram" in the same directory as the MAME executable). If this directory 
 	does not exist, it will be automatically created.
 
 -memcard_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where memory card files are stored. Memory
 	card files store the contents of removable memory cards for games which 
 	used this type of hardware. This data is read and written under control
 	of the user via the "Memory Card" menu in the user interface. The 
 	default is 'memcard' (that is, a directory "memcard" in the same 
 	directory as the MAME executable). If this directory does not exist, 
 	it will be automatically created.
 
 -input_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where input recording files are stored.
 	Input recordings are created via the -record option and played back via
 	the -playback option. The default is 'inp' (that is, a directory 
 	"inp" in the same directory as the MAME executable). If this directory 
 	does not exist, it will be automatically created.
 
 -hiscore_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where high score files are stored. High
 	score files are managed by the soon-to-be-obsolete high score system,
 	which is activated when it finds a hiscore.dat file. The high score data
 	is read at startup and written when MAME exits. The default is 'hi' 
 	(that is, a directory "hi" in the same directory as the MAME 
 	executable). If this directory does not exist, it will be automatically 
 	created.
 
 -state_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where save state files are stored. Save
 	state files are read and written either upon user request, or when using
 	the -autosave option. The default is 'sta' (that is, a directory "sta" 
 	in the same directory as the MAME executable). If this directory does 
 	not exist, it will be automatically created.
 
 -artpath / -artwork_directory
 
 	Specifies a list of paths within which to find artwork files. Multiple 
 	paths can be specified by separating them with semicolons. The default 
 	is 'artwork' (that is, a directory "artwork" in the same directory as
 	the MAME executable).
 
 -snapshot_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where screen snapshots are stored, when
 	requested by the user. The default is 'snap' (that is, a directory 
 	"snap" in the same directory as the MAME executable). If this directory 
 	does not exist, it will be automatically created.
 
 -diff_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where hard drive differencing files are 
 	stored. Hard drive differencing files store any data that is written
 	back to a hard disk image, in order to preserve the original image. The
 	differencing files are created at startup when a game with a hard disk
 	image. The default is 'diff' (that is, a directory "diff" in the same 
 	directory as the MAME executable). If this directory does not exist, 
 	it will be automatically created.
 
 -ctrlrpath / -ctrlr_directory
 
 	Specifies a list of paths within which to find controller-specific
 	configuration files. Multiple paths can be specified by separating 
 	them with semicolons. The default is 'ctrlr' (that is, a directory 
 	"ctrlr" in the same directory as the MAME executable).
 
 -comment_directory
 
 	Specifies a single directory where debugger comment files are stored. 
 	Debugger comment files are written by the debugger when comments are
 	added to the disassembly for a game. The default is 'comments' (that is, 
 	a directory "comments" in the same directory as the MAME executable). 
 	If this directory does not exist, it will be automatically created.
 
 -cheat_file
 
 	Specifies the name of the cheat database file. The default is 
 	'cheat.dat'.
 
 
 
 Misc options
 ------------
 
 -bios <biosname>
 
 	Specifies the specific BIOS to use with the current game, for game
 	systems that make use of a BIOS. The -listxml output will list all of
 	the possible BIOS names for a game. The default is 'default'.
 
 -[no]cheat / -[no]c
 
 	Enables the reading of the cheat database, if present, and the Cheat
 	menu in the user interface. The	default is OFF (-nocheat).
 
 
 
 State/playback options
 ----------------------
 
 -state <slot>
 
 	Immediately after starting the specified game, will cause the save 
 	state in the specified <slot> to be loaded.
 
 -[no]autosave
 
 	When enabled, automatically creates a save state file when exiting MAME
 	and automatically attempts to reload it when later starting MAME with
 	the same game. This only works for games that have explicitly enabled
 	save state support in their driver. The default is OFF (-noautosave).
 
 -playback / -pb <filename>
 
 	Specifies a file from which to play back a series of game inputs. This
 	feature does not work reliably for all games, but can be used to watch
 	a previously recorded game session from start to finish. In order to
 	make things consistent, you should only record and playback with all
 	configuration (.cfg), NVRAM (.nv), and memory card files deleted. The
 	default is NULL (no playback).
 
 -record / -rec <filename>
 
 	Specifies a file to record all input from a game session. This can be
 	used to record a game session for later playback. This feature does not 
 	work reliably for all games, but can be used to watch a previously 
 	recorded game session from start to finish. In order to make things 
 	consistent, you should only record and playback with all configuration 
 	(.cfg), NVRAM (.nv), and memory card files deleted. The default is NULL
 	(no recording).
 
 -mngwrite <filename>
 
 	Writes each video frame to the given <filename> in MNG format, producing 
 	an animation of the	game session. Note that -mngwrite only writes video
 	frames; it does not save any audio data. Use -wavwrite for that, and
 	reassemble the audio/video using offline tools. The default is NULL (no
 	recording).
 
 -wavwrite <filename>
 
 	Writes the final mixer output to the given <filename> in WAV format, 
 	producing an audio recording of the	game session. The default is NULL
 	(no recording).
 
 
 
 Debugging options
 -----------------
 
 -[no]log
 
 	Creates a file called error.log which contains all of the internal
 	log messages generated by the MAME core and game drivers. The default 
 	is OFF (-nolog).
 
 -[no]oslog
 
 	Outputs the error.log data to the Windows debugger. This can be used at
 	the same time as -log to output the log data to both targets as well.
 	Default is OFF (-nooslog).
 
 -[no]verbose / -[no]v
 
 	Displays internal diagnostic information. This information is very 
 	useful for debugging problems with your configuration. IMPORTANT: when
 	reporting bugs, please run with mame -verbose and include the resulting
 	information. The default is off (-noverbose)
 
 -[no]debug
 
 	Activates the integrated debugger. This is available only if the program
 	is compiled with MAME_DEBUG defined. By default, the debugger is
 	entered by pressing the tilde (~) key during emulation. It is also
 	entered immediately at startup. The default is OFF (-nodebug).
 
 -debugscript <filename>
 
 	Specifies a file that contains a list of debugger commands to execute
 	immediately upon startup. The default is NULL (no commands).
 
 
 
 Perormance options
 ------------------
 
 -[no]autoframeskip / -[no]afs
 
 	Automatically determines the frameskip level while you're playing the
 	game, adjusting it constantly in a frantic attempt to keep the game
 	running at full speed. Turning this on overrides the value you have set
 	for -frameskip below. The default is OFF (-noautoframeskip).
 
 -frameskip / -fs
 
 	Specifies the frameskip value. This is the number of frames out of
 	every 12 to drop when running. For example, if you say -frameskip 2,
 	then MAME will display 10 out of every 12 frames. By skipping those
 	frames, you may be able to get full speed in a game that requires more
 	horsepower than your computer has. The default value is -frameskip 0,
 	which skips no frames.
 
 -frames_to_run / -ftr
 
 	This option can be used for benchmarking and automated testing. It tells 
 	MAME to stop execution after a fixed number of frames. By combining 
 	this with a fixed set of other command line options, you can set up a 
 	consistent environment for benchmarking MAME performance. In addition, 
 	upon exit, the -ftr option will write a screenshot called 
 	_<gamename>.png to the snapshot directory.
 
 -[no]throttle
 
 	Configures the default thottling setting. When throttling is on, MAME
 	attempts to keep the game running at the game's intended speed. When
 	throttling is off, MAME runs the game as fast as it can. Note that the
 	fastest speed is more often than not limited by your graphics card,
 	especially for older games. The default is ON (-throttle).
 
 -[no]sleep
 
 	Allows MAME to give time back to the system when running with -throttle.
 	This allows other programs to have some CPU time, assuming that the
 	game isn't taxing 100% of your CPU resources. This option can 
 	potentially cause hiccups in performance if other demanding programs
 	are running. The default is ON (-sleep).
 
 -[no]rdtsc
 
 	Specifies that MAME should use RDTSC for timing. RDTSC is very fast but
 	unfortunately rather inaccurate on many modern CPUs that dynamically
 	change clock speeds to conserve power. By default, MAME uses the
 	Windows function QueryPerformanceCounter for timing. The default is
 	OFF (-nordtsc).
 
 -priority <priority>
 
 	Sets the thread priority for the MAME threads. By default the priority
 	is left alone to guarantee proper cooperation with other applications. 
 	The valid range is -15 to 1, with 1 being the highest priority. The 
 	default is 0 (NORMAL priority).
 
 
 
 Video options
 -------------
 
 -video <gdi|ddraw|d3d|none>
 
 	Specifies which video subsystem to use for drawing. By specifying 'gdi'
 	here, you tell MAME to render video using standard Windows graphics
 	drawing calls. This is the slowest but most compatible option. 
 	Specifying 'ddraw' instructs MAME to use DirectDraw for rendering. This
 	causes MAME to render everything at a lower resolution and then upscale
 	the results at the end. This produces high performance, especially on
 	older or low-power video cards, but has a noticeably lower output
 	quality. Specifying 'd3d' tells MAME to use Direct3D for rendering. This
 	produces the highest quality output and enables all rendering options.
 	It is recommended if you have a recent (2002+) video card. The final
 	option 'none' displays no windows and does no drawing. This is primarily
 	present for doing CPU benchmarks without the overhead of the video
 	system. The default is d3d.
 	
 -numscreens <count>
 
 	Tells MAME how many output windows to create. For most games, a single
 	output window is all you need, but some games originally used multiple
 	screens. Each screen (up to 4) has its own independent settings for
 	physical monitor, aspect ratio, resolution, and view, which can be
 	set using the options below. The default is 1.
 	
 -[no]window
 
 	Run MAME in either a window or full screen. The default is OFF
 	(-nowindow).
 
 -[no]maximize / -[no]max
 
 	Controls initial window size in windowed mode. If it is set on, the
 	window will initially be set to the maximum supported size when you
 	start MAME. If it is turned off, the window will start out at the
 	smallest supported size. This option only has an effect when the 
 	-window option is used. The default is ON (-maximize).
 
 -[no]keepaspect / -[no]ka
 
 	Enables aspect ratio enforcement. When this option is on, the game's
 	proper aspect ratio (generally 4:3 or 3:4) is enforced, so you get the
 	game looking like it should. When running in a window with this option
 	on, you can only resize the window to the proper aspect ratio, unless
 	you are holding down the CONTROL key. By turning the option off, the
 	aspect ratio is allowed to float. In full screen mode, this means that
 	all games will stretch to the full screen size (even vertical games).
 	In window mode, it means that you can freely resize the window without
 	any constraints. The default is ON (-keepaspect).
 
 -prescale <amount>
 
 	Controls the size of the screen images when they are passed off to the
 	graphics system for scaling. At the minimum setting of 1, the screen
 	is rendered at its original resolution before being scaled. At higher
 	settings, the screen is expanded by a factor of <amount> before being
 	scaled. With -video ddraw or -video d3d, this produces a less blurry
 	image at the expense of some speed. In -video ddraw mode, this also
 	increases the effective resolution of non-screen elements such as 
 	artwork and fonts. The default is 1.
 
 -effect <filename>
 
 	Specifies a single PNG file that is used as an overlay over any game
 	screens in the video display. This PNG file is assumed to live in the
 	root of one of the artpath directories. The pattern in the PNG file is 
 	repeated both horizontally and vertically to cover the entire game 
 	screen areas (but not any external artwork), and is rendered at
 	the target resolution of the game image. For -video gdi and -video d3d
 	modes, this means that one pixel in the PNG will map to one pixel on
 	your output display. For -video ddraw, this means that one pixel in the
 	PNG will map to one pixel in the prescaled game screen. If you wish to
 	use an effect that requires mapping n PNG pixels to each game screen
 	pixel with -video ddraw, you need to specify a -prescale factor of n as
 	well. The RGB values of each pixel in the PNG are multiplied against the
 	RGB values of the target screen. The default is 'none', meaning no 
 	effect.
 
 -pause_brightness
 
 	This controls the brightness level when MAME is paused. The default
 	value is 0.65.
 
 -[no]waitvsync
 
 	Waits for the refresh period on your computer's monitor to finish
 	before starting to draw video to your screen. If this option is off,
 	MAME will just draw to the screen at any old time, even in the middle
 	of a refresh cycle. This can cause "tearing" artifacts, where the top
 	portion of the screen is out of sync with the bottom portion. Tearing
 	is not noticeable on all games, and some people hate it more than
 	others. However, if you turn this option on, you will waste more of
 	your CPU cycles waiting for the proper time to draw, so you will see a
 	performance hit. You should only need to turn this on in windowed mode.
 	In full screen mode, it is only needed if -triplebuffer does not
 	remove the tearing, in which case you should use -notriplebuffer 
 	-waitvsync. Note that this option does not work with -video gdi mode.
 	The default is OFF (-nowaitvsync).
 
 -[no]syncrefresh
 
 	Enables speed throttling only to the refresh of your monitor. This
 	means that the game's actual refresh rate is ignored; however, the
 	sound code still attempts to keep up with the game's original refresh
 	rate, so you may encounter sound problems. This option is intended 
 	mainly for those who have tweaked their video card's settings to
 	provide carefully matched refresh rate options. Note that this option 
 	does not work with -video gdi mode.The default is OFF (-nosyncrefresh).
 
 
 
 Video rotation options
 ----------------------
 
 -[no]rotate
 
 	Rotate the game to match its normal state (horizontal/vertical). This
 	ensures that both vertically and horizontally oriented games show up
 	correctly without the need to rotate your monitor. If you want to keep 
 	the game displaying 'raw' on the screen the way it would have in the 
 	arcade, turn this option OFF. The default is ON (-rotate).
 
 -[no]ror
 -[no]rol
 
 	Rotate the game screen to the right (clockwise) or left (counter-
 	clockwise) relative to either its normal state (if -rotate is specified)
 	or its native state (if -norotate is specified). The default for both of
 	these options is OFF (-noror -norol).
 
 -[no]flipx
 -[no]flipy
 
 	Flip (mirror) the game screen either horizontally (-flipx) or 
 	vertically (-flipy). The flips are applied after the -rotate and 
 	-ror/-rol options are applied. The default for both of these options 
 	is OFF (-noflipx -noflipy).
 
 -[no]autoror
 -[no]autorol
 
 	These options are designed for use with pivoting screens that only
 	pivot in a single direction. If your screen only pivots clockwise,
 	use -autorol to ensure that the game will fill the screen either
 	horizontally or vertically in one of the directions you can handle.
 	If your screen only pivots counter-clockwise, use -autoror.
 
 
 
 DirectDraw-specific options
 ---------------------------
 
 -[no]hwstretch / -[no]hws
 
 	When enabled, MAME uses the hardware stretching abilities of your
 	video card to scale the game image and associated artwork to the 
 	target resolution. Depending on the quality of your graphic card and 
 	its drivers, this may be a fractional, antialiased scaling (nice) or 
 	an integer, blocky scaling (not so nice), in which case you might want
 	to disable this option. In addition, if you have configured specific
 	arcade-like video modes for MAME and don't want MAME to perform any
 	non-integral scaling of the image, you should also disable this option.
 	The default is ON (-hwstretch).
 
 
 
 Direct3D-specific options
 -------------------------
 
 -d3dversion <version>
 
 	MAME supports both Direct3D 9 and Direct3D 8 for maximum compatibility.
 	By default, it will automatically detect which one it can use and use
 	that version exclusively. You can override MAME's selection with this
 	option. It is primarily intended as a means for the MAME developers to
 	test compatibility with older hardware; for the most part, there is no
 	reason to alter this setting. The default is 9.
 
 -[no]filter / -[no]d3dfilter / -[no]flt
 
 	Enable bilinear filtering on the game screen graphics. When disabled,
 	point filtering is applied, which is crisper but leads to scaling
 	artifacts. If you don't like the filtered look, you are probably better
 	off increasing the -prescale value rather than turning off filtering
 	altogether. The default is ON (-filter).
 
 
 
 Per-window options
 ------------------
 
 -screen <display>
 -screen0 <display>
 -screen1 <display>
 -screen2 <display>
 -screen3 <display>
 
 	Specifies which physical monitor on your system you wish to have each
 	window use by default. In order to use multiple windows, you must have
 	increased the value of the -numscreens option. The name of each display
 	in your system can be determined by running MAME with the -verbose
 	option. The display names are typically in the format of: \\.\DISPLAYn,
 	where 'n' is a number from 1 to the number of connected monitors.
 	The default value for these options is 'auto', which means that the
 	first window is placed on the first display, the second window on the
 	second display, etc.
 	
 	The -screen0, -screen1, -screen2, -screen3 parameters apply to the
 	specific window. The -screen parameter applies to all windows. The
 	window-specific options override values from the all window option.
 
 -aspect <width:height> / -screen_aspect <num:den>
 -aspect0 <width:height>
 -aspect1 <width:height>
 -aspect2 <width:height>
 -aspect3 <width:height>
 
 	Specifies the physical aspect ratio of the physical monitor for each
 	window. In order to use multiple windows, you must have increased the 
 	value of the -numscreens option. The physical aspect ratio can be
 	determined by measuring the width and height of the visible screen 
 	image and specifying them separated by a colon. The default value for
 	these options is 'auto', which means that MAME assumes the aspect ratio
 	is proportional to the number of pixels in the desktop video mode for
 	each monitor.
 	
 	The -aspect0, -aspect1, -aspect2, -aspect3 parameters apply to the
 	specific window. The -aspect parameter applies to all windows. The
 	window-specific options override values from the all window option.
 	
 -resolution <widthxheight[@refresh]> / -r <widthxheight[@refresh]>
 -resolution0 <widthxheight[@refresh]> / -r0 <widthxheight[@refresh]>
 -resolution1 <widthxheight[@refresh]> / -r1 <widthxheight[@refresh]>
 -resolution2 <widthxheight[@refresh]> / -r2 <widthxheight[@refresh]>
 -resolution3 <widthxheight[@refresh]> / -r3 <widthxheight[@refresh]>
 
 	Specifies an exact resolution to run in. In full screen mode, MAME will
 	try to use the specific resolution you request. The width and
 	height are required; the refresh rate is optional. If omitted or
 	set to 0, MAME will determine the mode auomatically. For example,
 	-resolution 640x480 will force 640x480 resolution, but MAME is free to
 	choose the refresh rate. Similarly, -resolution 0x0@60 will force a
 	60Hz refresh rate, but allows MAME to choose the resolution. The string
 	"auto" is also supported, and is equivalent to 0x0@0. In window mode,
 	this resolution is used as a maximum size for the window. This option
 	requires the -switchres option as well in order to actually enable
 	resolution switching with -video ddraw or -video d3d. The default
 	value for these options is 'auto'.
 	
 	The -resolution0, -resolution1, -resolution2, -resolution3 parameters 
 	apply to the specific window. The -resolution parameter applies to all
 	windows. The window-specific options override values from the all 
 	window option.
 
 -view <viewname>
 -view0 <viewname>	
 -view1 <viewname>
 -view2 <viewname>
 -view3 <viewname>
 
 	Specifies the initial view setting for each window. The <viewname> does
 	not need to be a perfect match; rather, it will select the first view
 	whose name matches all the characters specified by <viewname>. For
 	example, -view native will match the "Native (15:14)" view even though
 	it is not a perfect match. The value 'auto' is also supported, and
 	requests that MAME perform a default selection. The default value for
 	these options is 'auto'.
 	
 	The -view0, -view1, -view2, -view3 parameters apply to the
 	specific window. The -view parameter applies to all windows. The
 	window-specific options override values from the all window option.
 
 
 
 Full screen options
 -------------------
 
 -[no]triplebuffer / -[no]tb
 
 	Enables or disables "triple buffering". Normally, MAME just draws
 	directly to the screen, without any fancy buffering. But with this
 	option enabled, MAME creates three buffers to draw to, and cycles
 	between them in order. It attempts to keep things flowing such that one
 	buffer is currently displayed, the second buffer is waiting to be
 	displayed, and the third buffer is being drawn to. -triplebuffer will 
 	override -waitvsync, if the buffer is sucessfully created. This option
 	does not work with -video gdi. The default is OFF (-notriplebuffer).
 
 -[no]switchres
 
 	Enables resolution switching. This option is required for the
 	-resolution* options to switch resolutions in full screen mode. On
 	modern video cards, there is little reason to switch resolutions unless
 	you are trying to achieve the "exact" pixel resolutions of the original
 	games, which requires significant tweaking. This option is also useful 
 	on LCD displays, since they run with a fixed resolution and switching
 	resolutions on them is just silly. This option does not work with
 	-video gdi. The default is OFF (-noswitchres).
 
 -full_screen_brightness / -fsb <value>
 
 	Controls the brightness, or black level, of the entire display. The
 	standard value is 1.0. Selecting lower values (down to 0.1) will produce
 	a darkened display, while selecting higher values (up to 2.0) will
 	give a brighter display. Note that not all video cards have hardware to
 	support this option. This option does not work with -video gdi. The
 	default is 1.0.
 
 -full_screen_contrast / -fsc <value>
 
 	Controls the contrast, or white level, of the entire display. The
 	standard value is 1.0. Selecting lower values (down to 0.1) will produce
 	a dimmer display, while selecting higher values (up to 2.0) will
 	give a more saturated display. Note that not all video cards have 
 	hardware to support this option. This option does not work with 
 	-video gdi. The	default is 1.0.
 
 -full_screen_gamma / -fsg <value>
 
 	Controls the gamma, which produces a potentially nonlinear black to
 	white ramp, for the entire display. The standard value is 1.0, which 
 	gives a linear ramp from black to white. Selecting lower values (down 
 	to 0.1) will increase the nonlinearity toward black, while selecting 
 	higher values (up to 3.0) will push the nonlinearity toward white. Note 
 	that not all video cards have hardware to support this option. This 
 	option does not work with -video gdi. The default is 1.0.
 
 
 
 Game screen options
 -------------------
 
 -brightness <value>
 
 	Controls the default brightness, or black level, of the game screens. 
 	This option does not affect the artwork or other parts of the display.
 	Using the MAME UI, you can individually set the brightness for each game
 	screen; this option controls the initial value for all visible game
 	screens. The standard value is 1.0. Selecting lower values (down to 0.1)
 	will produce a darkened display, while selecting higher values (up to 
 	2.0) will give a brighter display. The default is 1.0.
 
 -contrast <value>
 
 	Controls the contrast, or white level, of the game screens. This option 
 	does not affect the artwork or other parts of the display. Using the 
 	MAME UI, you can individually set the contrast for each game screen; 
 	this option controls the initial value for all visible game screens. The
 	standard value is 1.0. Selecting lower values (down to 0.1) will produce
 	a dimmer display, while selecting higher values (up to 2.0) will
 	give a more saturated display. The default is 1.0.
 
 -gamma <value>
 
 	Controls the gamma, which produces a potentially nonlinear black to
 	white ramp, for the game screens. This option does not affect the 
 	artwork or other parts of the display. Using the MAME UI, you can 
 	individually set the gamma for each game screen; this option controls 
 	the initial value for all visible game screens. The standard value is 
 	1.0, which gives a linear ramp from black to white. Selecting lower 
 	values (down to 0.1) will increase the nonlinearity toward black, 
 	while selecting higher values (up to 3.0) will push the nonlinearity 
 	toward white. The default is 1.0.
 
 
 
 Vector rendering options
 ------------------------
 
 -[no]antialias / -[no]aa
 
 	Enables antialiased line rendering for vector games. The default is ON
 	(-antialias).
 
 -beam <width>
 
 	Sets the width of the vectors. This is a scaling factor against the
 	standard vector width. A value of 1.0 will keep the default vector line
 	width. Smaller values will reduce the width, and larger values will
 	increase the width. The default is 1.0.
 
 -flicker <value>
 
 	Simulates a vector "flicker" effect, similar to a vector monitor that
 	needs adjustment. This option requires a float argument in the range of 
 	0.00 - 100.00 (0=none, 100=maximum). The default is 0.
 
 
 
 Artwork options
 ---------------
 
 -[no]artwork_crop / -[no]artcrop
 
 	Enable cropping of artwork to the game screen area only. This works
 	best with -video gdi or -video d3d, and means that vertically oriented
 	games running full screen can display their artwork to the left and 
 	right sides of the screen. This does not work with -video ddraw because
 	of the way the game screens are rendered and scaled after the fact. This
 	option can also be controlled via the Video Options menu in the user
 	interface. The default is OFF (-noartwork_crop).
 
 -[no]use_backdrops / -[no]backdrop
 
 	Enables/disables the display of backdrops. The default is ON
 	(-use_backdrops).
 
 -[no]use_overlays / -[no]overlay
 
 	Enables/disables the display of overlays. The default is ON
 	(-use_overlays).
 
 -[no]use_bezels / -[no]bezel
 
 	Enables/disables the display of bezels. The default is ON
 	(-use_bezels).
 
 
 
 Sound options
 -------------
 
 -[no]sound
 
 	Enable or disable sound altogether. The default is ON (-sound).
 
 -samplerate / -sr <value>
 
 	Sets the audio sample rate. Smaller values (e.g. 11025) cause lower
 	audio quality but faster emulation speed. Higher values (e.g. 48000)
 	cause higher audio quality but slower emulation speed. The default is
 	48000.
 
 -[no]samples
 
 	Use samples if available. The default is ON (-samples).
 
 -volume / -vol <value>
 
 	Sets the startup volume. It can later be changed with the user interface
 	(see Keys section). The volume is an attenuation in dB: e.g., 
 	"-volume -12" will start with -12dB attenuation. The default is 0.
 
 -audio_latency <value>
 
 	This controls the amount of latency built into the audio streaming. By
 	default MAME tries to keep the DirectSound audio buffer between 1/5 and
 	2/5 full. On some systems, this is pushing it too close to the edge,
 	and you get poor sound sometimes. The latency parameter controls the
 	lower threshold. The default is 1 (meaning lower=1/5 and upper=2/5).
 	Set it to 2 (-audio_latency 2) to keep the sound buffer between 2/5 and
 	3/5 full. If you crank it up to 4, you can definitely notice the lag.
 
 
 
 Input device options
 --------------------
 
 -ctrlr <controller>
 
 	Enables support for special controllers. Configuration files are
 	loaded from the ctrlrpath. They are in the same format as the .cfg
 	files that are saved, but only control configuration data is read
 	from the file. The default is NULL (no controller file).
 
 -[no]mouse
 
 	Controls whether or not MAME looks for a mouse controller to use. Note
 	that in many cases, lightguns are treated as mice by the operating
 	system, so you may need to enable this to enable lightgun support. When
 	this is enabled, you will not be able to use your mouse in Windows
 	while playing a game. If you want to get control of your computer back,
 	you will need to either pause the game or quit. The default is OFF
 	(-nomouse).
 
 -[no]joystick / -[no]joy
 
 	Controls whether or not MAME looks for joystick/gamepad controllers.
 	When this is enabled, MAME will ask DirectInput about which controllers
 	are connected. The default is OFF (-nojoystick).
 
 -[no]lightgun / -[no]gun
 
 	Controls whether or not MAME treats mouse inputs as lightgun inputs.
 	Note that most lightguns map to the mouse, so using -lightgun and
 	-mouse together may produce strange results. The default is OFF
 	(-nolightgun).
 
 -[no]dual_lightgun / -[no]dual
 
 	Controls whether or not MAME attempts to track two lightguns connected
 	at the same time. This option requires -lightgun. This option is a hack
 	for supporting older dual lightgun setups. If you have multiple 
 	lightguns connected, you will probably just need to enable -mouse and
 	configure each lightgun independently. The default is OFF
 	(-nodual_lightgun).
 
 -[no]offscreen_reload / -[no]reload
 
 	Controls whether or not MAME treats a second button input from a
 	lightgun as a reload signal. In this case, MAME will report the gun's
 	position as (0,MAX) with the trigger held, which is equivalent to an
 	offscreen reload. This is only needed for games that required you to 
 	shoot offscreen to reload, and then only if your gun does not support 
 	off screen reloads. The default is OFF (-nooffscreen_reload).
 
 -[no]steadykey / -[no]steady
 
 	Some games require two or more buttons to be pressed at exactly the
 	same time to make special moves. Due to limitations in the PC keyboard
 	hardware, it can be difficult or even impossible to accomplish that
 	using the standard keyboard handling. This option selects a different
 	handling that makes it easier to register simultaneous button presses,
 	but has the disadvantage of making controls less responsive. The
 	default is OFF (-nosteadykey)
 
 -a2d_deadzone / -a2d
 
 	If you play with an analog joystick, but the game requires digital
 	input, MAME needs to convert the signals. Here you can give the ratio
 	of movement along an axis that accounts for a digital signal. This
 	option expects a float in the range of 0.0 to 1.0. Note that the 
 	current handling is not accurate enough to handle diagonal movement
 	properly. The default is 0.3.
 
 -digital <all|none|j<N>[a<M>[a<K>...]][,j<X>[a<Y>...]][,...]>
 
 	Controls which joystick axes are considered digital. If MAME knows that
 	a given joystick axis is digital, it can make much better decisions about
 	how to treat that axis. If you are using a digital gamepad with MAME, 
 	you will want to use this option. There are a number of ways to do this:
 
 	-digital all means that all axes of all connected joysticks will be 
 		treated as digital.
 
 	-digital none means that all axes of all connected joysticks will be 
 		treated as analog (this is the default behavior).
     
 	-digital j2 will treat all axes of joystick #2 as digital; axes on all 
 		other joysticks will be treated as analog.
 
 	-digital j1a0a1 will treat axis 0 and 1 on joystick #1 as digital; all 
 		other axes will be treated as analog.
 
 	-digital j1a0a1,j2a5 will treat axis 0 and 1 on joystick #1 as digital, 
 		as well as axis 5 on joystick #2; all other axes will be treated 
 		as analog.
 
 	Make use of the information provided by -verbose to determine which 
 	joysticks and axes you should be configuring this way. The default is
 	'none'.
 
 
 
 Automatic device selection options
 ----------------------------------
 
 -paddle_device <keyboard|mouse|joystick|lightgun> / -paddle
 -adstick_device <keyboard|mouse|joystick|lightgun> / -adstick
 -pedal_device <keyboard|mouse|joystick|lightgun> / -pedal
 -dial_device <keyboard|mouse|joystick|lightgun> / -dial
 -trackball_device <keyboard|mouse|joystick|lightgun> / -trackball
 -lightgun_device <keyboard|mouse|joystick|lightgun>
 
 	Each of these options controls autoenabling the mouse, joystick, or
 	lightgun depending on the presence of a particular class of analog
 	control for a particular game. For example, if you specify the option
 	-paddle mouse, then any game that has a paddle control will automatically
 	enable mouse controls just as if you had explicitly specified -mouse.
 	Note that these controls override the values of -[no]mouse,
 	-[no]joystick, etc.